1 Department of Clinical Laboratory, Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital (The First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University, The College of Clinical Medicine of Human Normal University), Changsha, China
2 Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China
Introduction: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common deadly brain malignancy and lacks effective therapies. Immunotherapy acts as a promising novel strategy, but not for all GBM patients. Therefore, classifying these patients into different prognostic groups is urgent for better personalized management.
Materials and Methods: The Cell type Identification by Estimating Relative Subsets of RNA Transcripts (CIBERSORT) algorithm was used to estimate the fraction of 22 types of immune-infiltrating cells, and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression analysis was performed to construct an immune infiltration-related prognostic scoring system (IIRPSS). Additionally, a quantitative predicting survival nomogram was also established based on the immune risk score (IRS) derived from the IIRPSS. Moreover, we also preliminarily explored the differences in the immune microenvironment between different prognostic groups.
Results: There was a total of 310 appropriate GBM samples (239 from TCGA and 71 from CGGA) included in further analyses after CIBERSORT filtering and data processing. The IIRPSS consisting of 17 types of immune cell fractions was constructed in TCGA cohort, the patients were successfully classified into different prognostic groups based on their immune risk score ( p = 1e-10). What’s more, the prognostic performance of the IIRPSS was validated in CGGA cohort ( p = 0.005). The nomogram also showed a superior predicting value. (The predicting AUC for 1-, 2-, and 3-year were 0.754, 0.813, and 0.871, respectively). The immune microenvironment analyses reflected a significant immune response and a higher immune checkpoint expression in high-risk immune group.
Conclusion: Our study constructed an IIRPSS, which maybe valuable to help clinicians select candidates most likely to benefit from immunological checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and laid the foundation for further improving personalized immunotherapy in patients with GBM.