Centrophenoxine is sometimes touted as a “ nootropic ”, or “cognitive-enhancing” compound. Some people claim that it can protect the brain, enhance cognitive function, and even extend lifespan. But what does the science say about its effects, and how much do we actually know about its safety in human users? Read on to learn more about what the current research says about this drug’s potential effects, mechanisms, possible side-effects, and more!
Centrophenoxine , also known as Lucidril and Meclofenoxate , is one of the earliest and most studied nootropics , or so-called “smart” drugs.
Originally developed in 1959, this drug has been studied for its potential to help age-related brain disorders, such as Alzheimer ’s and dementia. It is also used by healthy people to enhance memory and cognitive function and improve overall brain health [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ].
Centrophenoxine is a combination of two chemicals: Dimethyl-aminoethanol (DMAE) , which is a natural substance found in some foods (fish, seafood) and in small amounts in the brain. It is a source of choline , and is believed to have stimulating effects on the brain [ 7 ].
Parachlorphenoxyacetic acid (pCPA) , a synthetic version of plant growth hormones called “ auxins ” [ 4 ].
DMAE is the main active component in this drug. Normally, DMAE doesn’t cross the blood-brain barrier very well – however, in the form of centrophenoxine, some studies suggest that it can cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the brain effectively [ 8 , 4 , 9 ].
Once it is absorbed in the body, a portion of centrophenoxine breaks down into DMAE and pCPA in the liver. DMAE is then converted to choline, while the remaining centrophenoxine circulates throughout the body [ 2 , 9 ].
Although its precise mechanisms are still being actively studied, some early research has suggested a variety of potential mechanisms that may be responsible for some of centrophenoxine’s effects.
Some of these proposed mechanisms include: Increasing acetylcholine in the brain. This is a major neurotransmitter that is believed to be essential for cognitive functions such as memory and learning [ 8 , 10 ].
Reducing lipofuscin . Lipofuscin is a waste product that builds up in cells (including brain cells) as we age. This is the same waste product that causes brown liver spots on the skin [ 11 , 12 ].
Increasing glucose uptake (more energy) and promoting blood flow (more oxygen) throughout the brain and its cells [ 13 , 14 ].
Increasing RNA production . This may increase protein turnover in neurons where worn-out or free radical-damaged proteins can be more effectively replaced [ 13 , 15 ].
While a number of centrophenoxine’s potential effects have been studied, much of this research is still in a relatively early stage, and in most cases it is difficult to come to any firm conclusions about its relative efficacy and safety in healthy human users.
This is a common situation for many so-called “nootropic” supplements and compounds, as these tend not to receive as much scientific attention as other drugs, such as pharmaceutical medications that are used by doctors to treat specific medical conditions. As a result, even supplements and compounds that are relatively “well-studied” often still don’t have the amount of research needed to officially classify them as effective, or get FDA approval for specific uses.
Therefore, the potential effects listed below are still considered to have “insufficient evidence” , and should be taken with a grain of salt until further research work – including large-scale clinical trials in healthy human users – is performed.
As a so-called “nootropic”, or “cognitive-enhancing” compound, centrophenoxine has been claimed to be able to boost certain cognitive functions – such as learning and memory – in its users. But what does the actual science have to say about this?
Although some studies have reported centrophenoxine to be beneficial in certain populations of older individuals, there are no solid scientific studies to back up its use as a nootropic in young adults.
For example, centrophenoxine was reported to help promote the formation of long-term memories and increased alertness, according to one study in 60 healthy – but elderly – human subjects [ 17 ].
Similarly, centrophenoxine was also reported to improve memory in 50 elderly patients with dementia [ 1 ].
On the animal research side, one study mice reported that centrophenoxine improved learning and memory in aged mice [ 4 ].
However, both of the early human studies described above – while promising – were limited to older users, or those with specific age-related medical conditions. Therefore, these preliminary results can’t yet be taken as solid proof of nootropic effects in younger, healthy human users without much more additional research in appropriately representative human populations.
The following potential uses of centrophenoxine are based solely on animal- and cell-based studies, and lack any appropriate human trials so far. Therefore, these are only potential “launching-points” for future clinical studies in humans, and no solid conclusions can be made about these effects in human users until additional research is done.
One of the more widespread claims about centrophenoxine is that it may potentially help protect the brain and its cells from stress and damage – in other words, that it may be “neuro-protective.”
A few lines of research in animals have reported early findings that offer some preliminary support for this effect, although appropriate human trials are so far lacking.
For example, several animal studies have reported that centrophenoxine may protect nerve cells from oxidative damage due to toxin exposure or stroke. In rats with various types of brain injury, centrophenoxine was reported to reduce the damage caused by free-radicals, and may have prevented some cognitive deficits that sometimes result from elevated oxidative stress, such as impairments to memory, overall cognitive function, and movement/motor control [ 8 , 18 , 19 , 14 ].
Similarly, according to some other animal studies (in rats), centrophenoxine reportedly increases the activity of major antioxidant enzymes like glutathione and superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) in the brain, which […]